Lecture 2 (讲座二)
Theories, concepts, schools, debates
理论, 概念, 学派,论争

The origins of Geopolitics
Geopolitics  studies relations and interactions of Spaces (Territories), States, Civilizations, Peoples, Economics
The fundamental are State, Culture, People, Army, Economy to Space (Territory) relations
Geopolitics was developed from Political Geography and Anthropogeography - Friedrich  Ratzel  (1844 – 1904)
The State is considered living being - Rudolf Kjellen (1864 - 1922, )
Space is qualitative not (quantitative)
Space is more important than Time
Space is synchronistic (Time is diachronistic)
Space is the fundament of Strategy - Alfred Thayer Mahan (1840 - 1914)
Today geopolitical dualism acquires new dimension:
it can not be anymore bipolar West (USA, EU, NATO) vs Heartland;
it is unipolarity (or globalism) vs multipolarity (order of civilizations or Big Spaces)
Sea Power represent Post-Modernity, global West
Land Power (continentalism) is the Rest (not Russia)
The role of traditional Heartland (Russia) in that multipolar project is to be in front of alternative World Order. Not any more as ideological or imperialist power (as in the past) but friendly and honest defender of the plurality of civilizations.
China, Europe, India, Muslim countries, Africa, Latin America and USA itself will find in the Multipolar World Order worthy place independent from present Western hegemony but independent as well from Russia.